Missing intel. Let’s imagine for a moment the position of the Antwerp medalist and sculptor Jacob Jonghelinck when he was tasked by Philip II of Spain to create a funerary effigy for his ancestor, Charles the Bold, the last Valois duke of Burgundy: Defeated and killed in battle over eighty years earlier, his corpse then found frozen and partially eaten by wolves, the ambitious Charles was not an easy subject, especially when the requested monument had to match that which had been made for his daughter, also a great many years ago. On view in Bruges‘ Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe Kerk (church), the resulting effigy captures the challenges faced by the sculptor, and the expedients he had to resort to. The largest part of Charles’ body is covered by a mantle, and a tabard, that is, a short coat commonly worn over armor and characteristically displaying one’s heraldic arms. On his head is a ducal bonnet, of the conventional type used in heraldry from the sixteenth century onward. The armor proved more difficult, if the sculptor‘s aim was to be true to his subject, that is! None of Charles‘ armors remained, and the old ducal armory had been dispersed—mostly pawned—by his son-in-law and successor, Maximilian I of Austria, and its remnants removed to Spain by his grandson, Philip II’s father, Emperor Charles V following his abdication in 1556... Jonghelinck opted for a contemporary, thus highly anachronistic, armor, which he reproduced in great detail. The close helmet, which is characteristic of the late 1550s and the 1560s, even shows on the right side the pivoted rest to prop the upper bevor (the face defense covering the nose and mouth) up, and the string the wearer could pull to release the mechanism that prevented the visor (the face defense covering the eyes) from being raised independently. Every element of the duke’s armor rings real without being true since it had nothing to do with his life and time. One concession was made to somehow evoke an earlier period, by introducing fantastical tassets (thigh defenses suspended from the steel skirt), of the kind one often sees in early Renaissance Flemish paintings and sculpture. A feat of realism and fiction!