Wehrmacht soldiers salute at a Vatican Guardsman at the entrance of Vatican City, cool right imagine being posted like that saying "Wo ist der Papst?"
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On this day in 1969, President Richard Nixon announces that 50,000 additional U.S. troops will be pulled out of South Vietnam by April 15, 1970. This was the third reduction since the June Midway conference, when Nixon announced his Vietnamization program.
Under the Vietnamization program, the South Vietnamese forces would receive intensified training and new equipment so they could gradually assume overall responsibility for the war. Concurrent with this effort, Nixon announced that he would begin to bring U.S. troops home. This third increment would bring the total reductions to 115,000. By January 1972, there were only around 70,000 U.S. troops left in South Vietnam.
Noting the steady withdrawal of American forces, the North Vietnamese decided to launch a massive invasion of South Vietnam in March 1972. The South Vietnamese forces, supported by American advisers and U.S. airpower, reeled under the onslaught but ultimately prevailed, holding on despite overwhelming odds. After much posturing and many lengthy negotiations (with additional “motivation” contributed by Nixon’s bombing of North Vietnam in December 1972), National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and his North Vietnamese counterpart, Le Duc Tho, hammered out a peace agreement. A cease-fire went into effect on January 27, 1973.
The war was over for the United States, but fighting soon resumed between North and South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese held out for nearly two years, but succumbed when the United States cut off all military support. When the North Vietnamese launched a new offensive in March 1975, South Vietnam fell in just 55 days.
"Oprichnicks in Novgorod", an early 20th-century depiction by Mikhail Avilov. #SackOfNovgorod#IvanTheTerrible
In addition to the tortures visited on the upper classes, the middle and lower classes also were treated with disregard and disdain. The Oprichniks centered its attack on the townspeople around two main objectives: to increase the royal treasury and to terrorize them into submission.
Ivan then ordered an attack on the trade streets of Novgorod, with the Oprichniks seizing all profitable goods and destroying shops & storehouses, then moved into the suburbs, where their instructions were to loot and destroy homes and kill all inhabitants who resisted.
Cold, hunger, and disease also killed hundreds of families that were evicted and exiled from the city. Women and children of all ages were also thrown from a high bank into the river where they were trapped under the ice. Soldiers patrolled the water in boats, pushing down anyone who managed to surface alive.
Ivan and his Oprichniks continued to brutalize Novgorod until February 12 when the troops withdrew leaving the destroyed city in the hands of the remaining population. In the end, it was claimed that the Oprichniks killed an estimated range of 2500 to 12.000 victims in this bloody massacre, although the actual number of victims is unknown. #PartSeven
RESEARCHERS ANNOUNCE WRECKAGE FROM USS INDIANAPOLIS LOCATED
A team of civilian researchers led by entrepreneur and philanthropist Paul G. Allen announced August 18 that they have found the wreck of the World War II cruiser USS Indianapolis (CA 35), which was lost July 30, 1945.
This is a significant discovery considering the depth of the water in which the ship was lost – more than 18,000 feet. Around 800 of the ship's 1,196 Sailors and Marines survived the sinking, but after four to five days in the water – suffering exposure, dehydration, drowning, and shark attacks – only 316 survived.
The wreck was located by the expedition crew of Research Vessel (R/V) Petrel, which is owned by Allen, 5,500 meters below the surface, resting on the floor of the North Pacific Ocean.
HEINZ-WOLFGANG SCHNAUFER — 121 VICTORIES — HIGHEST-SCORING NIGHT FIGHTER ACE ⬇️⬇️⬇️
✈️ TOP 7 PILOTS OF THE LUFTWAFFE ✈️ — V/VII
As Allied bombings intensified in 1943, Schnaufer joined a night fighter unit. The Germans experimented many tactics to disrupt enemy intrusion into German territory. The British took care of night shifts, while the Americans bombed during day time.
One simple, yet effective method was to charge at British bombers, when they were still packed in tight formations.
On February 21st, 1945, a few days after his 23rd birthday, he became an ace in a day after destroying 9 Lancaster bombers. 2 were shot down in the early morning and 7 others within 19 minutes in the evening.
He died on a business trip in France in 1950.
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I’m amused by the Mother’s side eye in this portrait, interesting artistic choice or juicy family drama? It does show off her fabulous and fashionable eyebrows though! By Anna Dorothea Therbusch-Lisiewska, c1777.
Yesterday the @britishmuseum opened the final part of the fully revamped The Sir Joseph Hotung Gallery of China and South Asia. The gallery has had a major refurbishment and I’m so glad I got to see it unveiled for the first time in my new role. It looks incredible and there are an astonishing 2,000 objects on display in a gallery the size of a football pitch. And it’s free 🙌👍😀
On this day in 2001, Italy’s Leaning Tower of Pisa reopens after a team of experts spent 11 years and $27 million to fortify the tower without eliminating its famous lean.
I'm a huge history nerd and not advocating anything, these guys were definitely on the wrong side of history. Just like other things, this caught my eye in a Virginia cemetery. Not only should you understand history so it doesn't repeat itself, but also to better understand where you're headed.
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In today's instalment of Today's Big History, we will be discussing the first observation of Andromeda.
Andromeda, considered the Crown Jewel of the Lord's Domains, with the Milky Way merely created by accident while God was beating Satan for peeing on the rug, is the last great frontier for our species. Andromeda is the untamed west of the universe, and it is with longing that we gaze ever after it's spacey trail. German Astronomer Simon Marius was not the first to view the galaxy however, but the first to see Andromeda, of supposed Greek Mythology.
Travelling by stately foot to the Middle East to do some serious science, Simon was entranced by the Mediterranean, longing to use natures super highway to quickly arrive in Sidon, known to all as the New York of Astronomy. Deciding that his small savings would be better spent on a ship than dinner, he booked passage in vile Venice, to their biggest trading partners, the Karamanid Empire. Using the small freedom allotted him on the boat to observe the stairs, later tilting his telescope to the stars, he was struck by what he first believed was an angel.
Descending gracefully from the heavens, it was not an angel come to earth, rather Andromeda returning to the world. Gawking and debasing himself at her feet, the myth come alive smiled benevolently at the man, and lifted him like a sack of spuds and tussled his hair. Desperate to know why she returned, Andromeda said she came as warning, to prevent Simon from travelling by sea, as December 15th was considered Poseidon's Purge Day. Obviously she was late.
Turning to the taciturn captain, Simon and Andromeda pleaded for the ship to turn around, the captain stubbornly refusing. On cue, Poseidon raged from the sea, wiping the sails and tearing the oars from the galley. Simon clutched onto Andromeda, as each was hurled into the swirling vortex of the waves, death a certainty. At the last minute, Julius Caesar leapt from the waves atop a giant Seahorse, rescuing the pair and ensuring their story would be told.
Thank you for tuning in to Today's Big History. My name is Caden Reid, and as always, history happens every day. We just need to remember.
"Novgorod people fleeing at the arrival of the Oprichniks", an early 20th-century painting by Vasnetsov. #SackOfNovgorod#IvanTheTerrible
Following the arrest of the Archbishop and his subsequent imprisonment, Ivan’s soldiers set about stripping the cathedrals and churches of all of their valuables, including the ornaments and icons from the St. Sophia Cathedral. Thereafter, the priests and deacons of the churches inside the city were arrested and turned over to the bailiffs to be held in shackles and flogged from dawn until dusk unless or until they could pay a ransom of 20 rubles each.
Although Ivan believed that Pimen and the church were the primary architects of the plot for Polish defection, Ivan also took out the brunt of his sadistic anger on the population of Novgorod.
Ivan’s army detained the leading merchants, traders and officials along with their families. They were tortured for information regarding the supposed defection and liaison with the Polish king. The judges later employed exceedingly cruel tortures to facilitate their inquiries, including burning with a "clever fire-making device", roasting over fires, or being strung up by one's hands and having one's eyebrows singed off.
It was claimed by the Novgorod chronicle that the court condemned approximately 200 gentry, more than 100 servants, 45 secretaries and chancery people, and a proportionate number of families to die during their occupation of the city. #PartSeven
#centralheterochromia 👀Adolescent girl, Pakistan 1984. Made the cover of National Geographic in June 1985, their most famous cover. She was arrested years later for fraudulent identity. Her name: Sharbat Gula. Her parents were killed in the Soviet Union's bombing of Afghanistan when she was 6 years old. Steve McCurry then found her in a refugee camp in Pakistan, where he took this photograph. #nationalgeographic#historygeek#photojournalism#hobbies#eyesonfleek