The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was interpreted by James as just that - a permanent peace agreement which put to rest old English pretensions to be overlords of Scotland. It was understood differently in England though. When Henry VII died in 1509, he was succeeded by his son, Henry VIII. Ambitious, brash, arrogant and impatient, the new Henry saw no reason to acknowledge Scotland as an equal kingdom, and he treated James, his brother-in-law, as a second rate monarch. Lacking the political subtlety of his father, Henry antagonised James over several issues. In 1511, Andrew Barton, a Scottish seaman who could be generously described as a privateer or harshly labelled a pirate, was captured at sea by Thomas and Edward Howard, the sons of the earl of Surrey, after raiding a Portguese ship carrying English goods. Barton was summarily executed, but his crews were allowed to go free after declaring themselves pirates. To have his subjects labelled as pirates by the English King was galling to James, but their were further grievances. Earlier and on land, James' lieutenant Si Robert Kerr, Warden of the Middle March and the man responsible for keeping the peace and maintaining the defences on the English border, was murdered by the Northumbrian Border Reiver John Heron, known as 'Bastard Heron' due to his illegitimacy. Heron faced no punishment from Henry for this blatant violation of the law and of his neighbour's sovereignty. These episodes, among others, soured relations between Scotland and England, and had them preparing for war again despite the 'perpetual peace' they were supposedly enjoying. James was perhaps more attentive to military matters than his English counterpart, and eagerly patronised the production of two types of military technology - ships and guns. The old, unstable cogs of the Middle Ages were being replaced across Northern Europe by carracks, Mediterranean style vessels which were larger, faster, more stable, and could carry multiple cannon. (Continued in comment)
The Trebizond Fleet
🇬🇧:The Empire of Trebizond who was founded in the year 1204 made a great effort to stop the Anatolian Turks from reaching the coast. The arsenals of Trebizond built merchant and military vessels. But the navy of Trebizond were of only modest size. It only comparised two or three major warships plus smaller vessels. In the Year 1355 the fleet only counted one Warship and 11 smaller vessels. And in the year 1379 only two of each class. However there is a interesting mention of Ludovico da Bologna. He Talks about a fleet of 20 warships, and in the Year 1402 Emperor Manuel III Komnenos provide the Service of 20 galleys against the Ottomans.
🇩🇪:Das Kaiserreich Trapezunt welches im Jahr 1204 gegründet wurde trug gut dazu bei die Anatolischen Türken zu stoppen die Küste zu erreichen. Das Arsenal von Trapezunt baute Handels- und Kriegschiffe. Aber die Navy von Trapezunt war von bescheidener grösse. Sie beinhaltete nur zwei oder drei Kriegsschiffe plus kleinere Schiffe. Im Jahr 1355 beinhaltete die Flotte nur ein. Kriegsschiff und 11 kleinere Schiffe. Und im Jahr 1379 nur zwei von jeder Klasse. Jedoch gibt es eine interessante Erwähnung von Ludovico da Bologna. Er spricht von einer Flotte mit 20 Kriegsschiffen und im Jahr 1402 verschaffte sich Kaiser Manuel III Komnenos die Dienste von 20 Galleren gegen die Osmanen.
#OnThisDay in 1486, the War if the Roses ends as Henry VII of House Lancaster weds Elizabeth of House York, thus uniting the Tudors🌹⚔️🛡The tangled, bloody conflict remains a popular topic for academic and arm chair historians, and plenty of pop culture. The War of the Roses supposedly was a big inspiration for George R.R. Martin’s “A Song of Ice and Fire” series, now better known as “Game of Thrones.”
#OTD (or tomorrow) 1425 Edmund Mortimer, 5th earl of March and the last of the male Mortimers of Wigmore died at Trim Castle in co. Meath, Ireland. Born at one of his Fathers Hampshire manors in November 1391 ( he was not born in Ireland as oft reported ) Edmund was the second child and first son of Roger Mortimer, 4th earl of March and his wife Eleanor Holland. Despite marriage to Anne Stafford circa 1415, Edmund had no children. At his death his heir was his nephew, 13 year old Richard duke of York. It is worth noting that Edmund was the great uncle of Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III. Through the former Edmund was the x3 great uncle of Henry VIII.
One of the most brutal medieval stories similar to Game of Thrones scenario happened in Bosnia in 1415.
There the Croat-Hungarian army of King Sigismund lost a battle to a Bosnian-Turkish army led by the duke Hrvoje Vukcic Hrvatinic.
After the battle, among the prisoners of war Hrvoje recognised a nobleman who he met earlier in a castle of town Buda (today's Budapest).
That nobleman made fun of his neck by imitating a bull.
Hrvoje didn't react to his provocation back then, but now he couldn't resist taking revenge.
He sewed him alive on bull's skin, and threw him in the river all sewn up saying: "When you like to imitate a bull, then die like a bull".
Today, 471 years ago, on January 16, 1547, Ivan IV also known as Ivan the Terrible, is crowned as the first Tsar “Tsar of All the Russias”. Ivan, before his crowning, he held the title of Grand Prince of Moscow. But at 16 years old, after his parents had died he was crowned in the Cathedral of the Dormition in Moscow. The early part of his reign saw peaceful reforms and modernization, such as the creation of a standing army known as the Streltsy, establishment of a Russian parliment known as the Zemsky Sobor, revised the law code making Sudebnik of 1550, and saw the first printing press introduced to Russia. But from all the wars against surrounding territories and the death of his wife in 1560, Ivan seems to have changed drastically. He even left the throne for a short while and returned, and soon he started to persecute nobels by executions. He was ruthless in his conquests of expanding Russian territory in Kazan and Siberia. In 1570 he ordered the sack of the Russian city of Novgorod, killing about 10,000 - 20,000 by modern estimates. As he got older Ivan’s mental health started to break down, making him extremely bipolar and violent. He even killed his own son, Ivan, in 1581 by hitting him over the head with his sceptre during a heated argument, he instantly felt regret for his actions. Ivan the Terrible would die on March 28, 1584 and soon his dynasty, the Rurikids, would fall apart. But the fall of the Rurikids would pave the way for the next dynasty of Russian rulers, the Romanovs, who would rule from 1613 all the way up until 1917.
Just received a few books I ordered from my favourite used bookshop today :) I love Bennett & Kerr Books, they sell so many history books and they package them really well (which is rare in bookshops). I have a few crusade books for my module on it and a few of the Camden books to add to my collection, these ones include the Clifford letters 1500-1565, the disputed regency of Jerusalem etc.
James IV had done quite well for himself in the war of 1495-1497. He had displayed his military prestige, raided England with impunity, and had goaded Henry VII into an ineffectual response. The English King's attention was demanded by other matters, and so talks of peace soon replaced border skirmishes and sieges. The wheels of diplomacy rolled slowly into motion, and a preliminary peace agreement was agreed, known as the Treaty of Ayton. Through protracted negotiations, a 'Treaty of Perpetual Peace' was finally agreed in 1502 - the first "permanent" peace treaty agreed between England and Scotland since 1328. Apart from peace, the most significant feature of this peace was the marriage agreement between King James and Henry's daughter, Princess Margaret Tudor. This took place in 1503, and was the basis for the Stewart claim to the throne of England in the following century. After James ad Margaret's wedding both Scotland and England were content enough, and a relatively cordial peace settled over Britain. It is perhaps worthwhile at this time to consider the nature of kingship at this point in history, the juncture between the Middle Ages and the early modern period. 'Renaissance kingship' was characterised by display, opulence and pageantry, with Kings being eager to show their wealth, worldliness and bounty. In both kingdoms the arts and architecture flourished under royal patronage, but more this this, both Kings wanted to be personally impressive individuals. This was best displayed by intelligence and knowledge. A Spanish diplomat, Don Pedro de Ayala, recorded that James could speak Scots, Gaelic, French, German, Flemish, Italian and Spanish, and that he was very well read and had a wonderful memory. James was popular among his Scottish subjects, in contrast to Henry in England. The English King was no less shrewd and intelligent, but he was tight-fisted, secretive and cold. Henry's subjects may not have loved him, but his reign was no less successful for that. Under their magnificent rulers England and Scotland let the dust settle, and gave peace a chance... #flowersoftheforest#medievalhistory
The Cadaver Synod. In 897 A.D., Catholic Pope Stephen (VII) put former Pope Formosus on trial - despite Formosus having been dead for nine months. Pope Stephen was so enraged over Formosus' actions 30 years prior that he had his body exhumed, clad him in papal robes and propped him on a throne at the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome, complete with a deacon for legal council. The reasons for his rage stemmed from a complicated political power struggle. (If you want more details just google Cadaver Synod or Cadaver Trial.). Pope Stephen, as lead prosecutor, shouted his arguments at the corpse. The final verdict was, of course, guilty. Formosus was stripped of his sacred vestments, had 3 fingers cut off his right hand (the one used for blessings), had all his ordinations annulled and was eventually thrown into the Tiber River. A local monk reportedly drug his body out of the water days later and reinterred him at St. Peter's Basilica. It's reported that another Pope exhumed him again in 904 A.D., beheaded him and again threw his body in the Tiber. In case you were wondering, the Catholic Church has since banned any future physical prosecutions of corpses (round of applause!) and Pope Formosus and his acts were posthumously reinstated. Most metal phrase of the day: DAMNATIO MEMORIAE:
Meaning condemnation of memory, everything you ever did wiped from the books. #cadaversynod#cadaver#popesbehavingbadly#corpseontrial#corpse#exhumation#religioushistory#catholichistory#medieval#medievalhistory#dioramas#miniatures#tinythings#bones#skeletons#curiosities#handmade#instaart#momentomori#artistsoninstagram#historybones#historybuff#historygram#stories#mixedmedia#lightenupfrancis
Woke up early enough for off leash in @prospect_park but quickly realized it's way too cold...again. So we have coffee, a book and Daisy's delivery on the way. Pretty sure Bonnie is ok with this. #basslebeautysleep 🐶😴 (📕 is The Great Mortality by John Kelly - I'm a medieval history nerd 🤓) #basslebookpicks
Henry VII set about securing his hold on the English crown. He defeated residual Yorkist resistance at the Battle of Stoke in 1487, and soon fathered children by his wife, Elizabeth of York, to secure the fledgling Tudor dynasty. In Scotland meanwhile, James IV finally took the reigns of government in 1495, and enacted a policy designed to win the approval of his nobles - war with England. Scotland and England had had a largely antagonistic relationship since the end of the thirteenth century, and war against the English had proved profitable and popular for many Scots. With this in mind, James saw fit to host the pretender to the English throne, a man named Perkin Warbeck who declared himself to be Richard of York, the younger of the 'Princes in the Tower.' Warbeck posed a direct threat to Henry VII, for he claimed to be the rightful Yorkist claimant to the English throne and was also accepted as such by the rulers of France, Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire, and James used him as leverage against Henry. In 1495, James launched a raid into England, ostensibly to support the rights of Warbeck though in reality to feather his own cap. The raid was remarkably successful, with much plunder and booty being taken. After unsuccessful negotiations, James again raided England in 1496, provoking Henry into an overreaction. In attempting to raise large sums of money to fund an army, Henry provoked rebellion in Cornwall which occupied his attention, leaving him unable to deal with the Scots. Warbeck had by this exhausted his usefulness for James, and he travelled to Ireland where he raised the standard of rebellion and travelled to England, where his support had melted away and he was captured and thrown in the Tower of London. James meanwhile sought again to demonstrate his military might without fully exercising it. He besieged the border fortress of Norham Castle in 1497, pounding it with his artillery before withdrawing in the face of an approaching English relief force. Neither side had the stomach or the funds for an extended campaign, and so they both sat down at the negotiating table, eager to come to a settlement... #flowersoftheforest#medievalhistory