Muslim Conquest of Persia 633-654:
Part II [Invasion of Iran]
Rashidun Caliphate: Caliph Umar desired that the Zagros Mountains to be the new frontier between the Arabs and Iranians. Therefore, he made peace with the Sassanids and focused his attention into invading Byzantine lands.
Sassanid Empire: Shah Yazdgerd III relocated the capital to Merv, but he desired to retake his lost lands. So in 638, supported the chief Hormuzan into raiding the Muslim Mesopotamia, initiating a second war with the Caliphate. But Hormuzan was captured and invited into the court Caliphate court at Medina.
-Battle of Nahavand (642): In 641, the Yazdgerd pride was hurt and now decided to finally retake his old capital. So he created a massive army in Merv of 100,000 men which will decisively defeat the Muslims. The Muslim army under Sa’d invaded Iran with 30,000 men in order to end with the Shahs forces. Both armies met at Nahavand, but the Arabs send fake news to the Sassanids saying that their caliph Umar has recently died. The Sassanids confident then pursued the Arabs while they retreated into more secure locations. Without noticing, the Arabs surrounded the Sassanids in the mountains and slaughtered the Iranian army.
-Conquest of West Iran: In 642, Umar send an army to siege the city of Isfahan, the heart of Iran and Sassanid power. Later on, in 651 this army also took Qom and successfully conquered all of the Isfahan province. However, the Arab governor of Bahrain decided to invade Fars in 640, but they were defeated by the defenders.
Unfortunately for the Caliphate, in 644 caliph Umar was assassinated and some hypothesis say that it was planned by the pardoned commander Hormuzan.
-Conquest of the East: In 651, the Arabs invaded the last provinces of the Sassanids, Khorasan. They sieged the city of Herat, and later moved to Merv. Upon hearing this, Yazdgerd fleet the city and allied himself to the Turkish tribes. However, the tribes feared the Caliphate and betrayed the Iranians. Yazdgerd was ultimately defeated and fled to China.
Khan Bazaar Yazd, Iran
Yazd’s old bazaars is an extensive urban architectural complex located at the south of the Iranian central city of Yazd and includes several bazaar passages.
This collection forms the spinal column (foundation) of the old city of Yazd. Architecturally Qeisariyeh, located between Khan square and Khan School has more space order than other bazaars.
It is protected by two wooden doors (gates) which have high artistic value. The oldest section of this bazaar is called Hadji Qanbar bazaar that was in the 9th century AH. Included in the Amir Chakhmaq cultural-historical complex.
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