Film "Lotna" by Andrzej Wajda or saber and lance for the German tanks. There is no doubt that the inspiration for the scenes with Polish lunatics charging for German tanks in September 1939 in the film "The Lotna" were the images created by the propaganda of the Nazi minister Dr. Josepha Goebbels. In a similar style, the Soviet military propagated the Soviet propaganda and then the communist regime in the People's Republic of Poland. Wajda deliberately duplicated the propaganda gags of Germany and the Soviet Union. This is a lie on the screen is good. Wajda's film is constantly being played on Polish television, shown at various film events and represents Polish cinema on foreign screens. In the movie "Lotna" a long sequence is the attack of the Polish cavalry on a German motorized column during which the thugs throw lances to the Germans, like some primitive warriors of spears. Then the German tanks and the commander of the Polish unit manage an unknowable attack on these tanks. Wajda is lying there, because the Cavalry did not use the lancet in September 1939, and the rules of the fight prevented cavalry from attacking "self-contained" fire stations, not only tanks, but also machine guns. The Polish cavalry were destroying German tanks (such as the Volhynia Cavalry Brigade in the battle of Mokra) with rifles and anti-tank guns fighting on foot, in trenches. In the film we watch scenes from the Nazi propaganda, when the lancers are sniffing the barrels of German tanks carrying the horrible slaughter of Poles. At this point Wajda creatively developed Dr. Goebbels' thesis. In the role of the German tanks, it occupied Soviet T-34/85. In addition to Oscar Wajda, the award of the German propaganda minister would be useful.
The battle of Maciejowice, on October 10, 1794, at 13 o'clock came to a tragic end. Poles have lost four thousand people, Russians by half. Two thousand soldiers were taken into captivity, including generals: Sierakowski, Kamienski, Kniaziewicz and Tadeusz Kościuszko, captured four kilometers from Maciejowice. The commander escaped from the battlefield along with a group of fleeing towards Laskarzew, trying to bypass the Russian rides and to do so, turning into swampy meadows. Cossacks, lured by the rich polish of Polish cavalrymen, pursued them in pursuit. By jumping out of the ditch near the grove, Krępa Kościuszki's horse stumbled, throwing the rider on the turf. When the Cossacks arrived on the run and did not want to fall into their hands, he put the crusher in his mouth and pulled the trigger, but the gun did not burn. At this point Cossacks reached him. The enemies, not knowing that they were dealing with the Chief, robbed him completely, and in the course of these operations came the cornet of the Kharkiv light cavalry regiment Fiedor Lysenko cut a defenseless prisoner in his head with a scabbard. Kosciuszko lost consciousness after this blow. When it turned out who the unconscious prisoner was ("The man lying on the top of the garment was torn off, his head on his arm, blood soaked his long hair, because he was wounded in the head, dark colored jackets, because he was still on it, Vice-chancellor Józef Drzewiecki), the Cossacks, wearing a pair of linked Peaks, carried on the improvised stretcher to the nearby Podzamcze. Here was the Russian surgeon. At the moment of capturing Kosciuszko he was supposed to cry "Finis Poloniae!". After all, today there is little doubt that the Chief's shouting was made and spread by the Prussian press, because in none of the participants of the Battle of Maciejowice, neither Polish nor Russian, there was the slightest mention of it. This was used by the Prussian government, leading anti-Polish propaganda in the Duchy of Poznań in the nineteenth century.
Today was a 30 minute practice. With limited time, I still had many ideas for this prompt, sword. So I bang this out, I would need to retrace it neatly before adding any of it to my little box. I used traditional Polish swords I found on a historical website. I also used several different inking pens even a brush tip which I don’t usually use.Thanks for looking #inktober#adammadethat#sword#swordtattoo#szabla#miecz#polishtattooartist
October 7, 1620, during the chaotic retreat from Cecory, Stanislaw Żółkiewski, the crown prince, died. Although Żółkiewski made many mistakes in this campaign, the blame for the defeat was to blame the accompanying magnates who contributed to the anarchy and turmoil in the camp. Under Cecor on the Prut River composed of quartz troops, private armies (magnates) and the foxes, the Polish army made contact with much larger Turkish-Tatars. Fighting lasted two days, the Polish troops against the five-fold advantage of Turkey were forced to withdraw to the camp. The next day the hetman wanted to join another battle, but the magnates opposed it. Due to the insubordination of private forces (the magnates decided to return to Poland on their own), the escape of some commanders and part of the army Stanisław Żółkiewski was forced to retreat. Under his command, the forces formed in the camp and set off for Poland. During this march, the army was harassed by constant attacks, she responded with 17 enemy storms. Still in Moldova, before the retreat, in the confusion caused by the hetman's opposed magnates, there were numerous thefts. When the Polish army reached almost the border Dniester and from the Commonwealth divides them only 10 km in the camp broke panic. The rebels started to flee and the camp was torn apart. Turks and Tartars attacked and the slaughter began. Most of the deserters who escaped were killed. Only people under the command of the hetman. The numerical advantage of the opponent, however, decided the defeat of the defenders. Among them were the son of hetman Jan Żółkiewski and the crown primate Stanisław Koniecpolski. Stanislaw Żółkiewski himself was killed in battle, with a saber in his hand. His cut off head of Iskender Pasha gave the Turkish sultan a sign of victory. A year later, in 1621 Rzeczpospolita issued 100 thousand. army and effectively resisted the army of the Turkish Empire. The words engraved on the tomb of Hetman Żółkiewski: "Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor", ie "Let our ancestors be avenged from our bones" were fulfilled in the victories of the Turks by his great-grandson Jan III Sobieski, king of Poland.
At the tips of the hussar the banners were pinned (same for the whole banner), eg white-red, blue-green, black-white, etc. They were also more elaborate. Their length was about 2.5-3.5m (they reached the ears when the copy was upright). In addition to the decorative function, they had additional tasks. They served as a distinguishing mark (as mentioned above each hussar flag had the same type of pennants, different from other flags), were also effective "scumbag" for the horse of the opponent. Fluttering and spinning matter could awaken fear and scare hostile horses - not accustomed to such a sight (the horse is a skittish animal, even horses shot and ricocheted and battle noise can react to a new, unknown phenomenon). For distant marches, the copies were loaded on carts, but during the parade or battle, the copies were held at the right stirrups in the sleeves (ie, leather or metal halves).
Ryngraf is a sign that reminds, makes presentations, commemorates, masters, sends back and considers Mary. A sign that relates to her actions, help, defense, intercession. Ryngraf is a sign of service, a sign of faith and its manifestation. Ryngraf, being a reminder of the person of Mary, means, therefore, to the bearer of him, to turn to her, to come to her aid, to be with her, to enter into her covenant with her. Ryngraf is the sign of prayer and the presence of the Mother of God in the soldier's life. Husaria and some armored units adorned the armor with a brass relief with the image of the Madonna, most often the Immaculate Conception. Other types of troops began to wear rudders in the second half of the 17th century. Initially, the captain, worn under the robe, was placed on the upper side of the armor. So began the form of ryngraf, which as a unique Polish devotee to the present. In the 19th century the ryegrass lost its popularity. Rare items can be found from the insurrection period of 1863-1864. World War I became a period of renaissance for the ryngrass. The tradition of the legionaries continued during World War II. In September 1939, many officers and soldiers took commemorative rattlesnakes to war. What proved was the discovery in the Katyn Forest among various souvenirs and documents also rattles. Giraffes were an expensive heart of souvenirs offered at the blessing of wives and mothers when soldiers set out for war. Is it with the image of the Jasna Gora Lady, or What in the Shining Gate, was sacrificed in the sanctuaries and offered on the occasion of baptism, communion, wedding, etc. By continuing the tradition of our ancestors nowadays the ryegrass can become a "spiritual shield" for us. will protect you from all evils and testify to our patriotism.
In Europe, the saber appeared with Turkish expansion. Apart from Turkey, it first appeared in Hungary and then its influence reached Poland. The consequence of the Hungarian-Turkish wars of the 14th century was the spread of oriental weapons, including the saber. Saber reached the Commonwealth of the 16th and 18th centuries. In Poland, the saber was a weapon prohibited for the nobility, especially as an attribute of nobility. There was a sword in her place. This changed in the Commonwealth only during the reign of Stefan Batory (1576 -1586). This led to the development of the Hungarian-Polish Saber, as a result. for the rise of the Polish Husband's Sabbath. The appearance of this weapon was due to a change in combat style. The opponent has changed: on the more mobile in the form of even the Tartars. For this reason, another weapon had to appear lighter than the sword, and here a saber appeared. It should be emphasized that this weapon dominated the noble culture and existed until the times of partition and even further. In the 20th century the saber was also used by the army: during the First World War, by the Polish Legions. It was also used during one of the greatest cavalry battles of the 20th century, during the Polish-Bolshevik war (Battle of Komarov on August 31, 1920). During World War II the saber was used by the Polish cavalry during the September campaign. Obviously, it is necessary to overthrow the shameful myth and German propaganda that the Polish Cavalry was to attack the German tanks with "sabers". In modern times, the saber is a parody of military uniform, especially of officers. In addition, it seems that, in addition to the Polish national consciousness, thinking is growing that this weapon should be treated as ancestral legacy and part of Polish culture - in this case the noble and sarmat culture.
The Polish costume was astonishing, but also a delight in the quality of the cut, the ornamentation and glamor, in which the Western luxury was rightly seen in the West. Long was a determinant of our cultural originality. The typical Polish nobleman's dress began to take on a more permanent and definite form in the second half of the 16th century. The Polish garment had its prototype, apparently in ceremonial eastern attire (sometimes the costumes of the nobility are compared to the clothes worn even at the court of Suleiman the Great, 1520-1566). However, the Hungarian influence is also visible. Apparently, the reign of Stefan Batory (1576--86) battered and on our costumes. The container was usually made of very good quality cloth; Winter was conquered by several centimeters of wadding and their top was covered with fur collar. Summer versions had a lining of precious silk contrasting usually with the color of the top of the cloth (eg silk red was dressed with cloth). The cushion was tied with a decorative belt, the most representative (and often the most expensive) element of the costume. The price of the belt depended on the amount of gold or silver that was pierced. Contour belts may have been 2.5 to 4 meters in length, and their widths were also large: about 40-50 cm. Such a belt was wrapped several times. Aristocrats particularly appreciated belts from Sluck, a town lying about 100 km south of Minsk, and from Mazowiecka Kobyłka. The costumes were complemented by caps and shoes. The hats consisted of a "head" made of the material from which the earrings were made, and a fur-wrap. At the front they were cut. Such a front was often decorated with a pen attached to a broiling eye. From Old Polish paintings we know that the nobility usually wore boots with high yellow or red boots.
One of the characteristic features of Polish landscape, Polish history and culture are manors. From the beginning of the Polish state they were built, first as defensive knight nests, later from the mid-seventeenth century as the seat of landowners, of a residential nature. The dwellings are called one-storey rural dwellings of landowners, so buildings are smaller than castles and palaces, and larger than peasant lodges. The courts were the center of farming, the center of noble culture and customs, the cultivation of the family tradition and the fight for Polishness. At the time of knightly manor houses were all the bypasses where the knight's house was located, a number of other residential and farm buildings. Classical manor houses were built from the end of the 18th century to the end of the 19th century. "Typical Polish Manor House" is situated on a hill, always surrounded by a park, it is one-story, it would be good to have a hipped roof covered with shingles or tiles. Built of larch logs "on the frame" or brick. Well, if it is "eleven o'clock", so that the sun illuminates all four walls of the mansion. The court should lead the alley, and in front of the court a small lawn to create a courtyard of honor. On September 6, 1944, the Communists released the so- PKWN decree on agricultural reform. It was expropriated and removed by the power of landowners. The courtrooms became the shelter of random people, some of them were allocated to schools, cooperative production offices and state farms. Some of the mansions were destroyed as "relics of the area and the hostile regime" or were dismantled by the local population. Owners who were not murdered by the Gestapo or the NKVD or during the occupation were not sent to German or Soviet camps or to Siberia, were expelled from the mansions. Part did not return after the end of the Second World War. from abroad or fled west, saving himself from repression. The Stalinist decrees did not allow landlords to live within 30 miles of their home. The courts began to die massively. Ragged, stripped, devastated, in the parked or cut out parks, is a sad testimony of barbarity and contempt for our history.
It does not know all about the history of Poland who was not on the Holy Cross! Benedictines once lived in this monastery. Today, the Missionaries of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate are taking their place they guard the great relics of the Holy Cross. And it is stored in the main altar in the Oleśnicki chapel in the modern armored tabernacle. The Holy Cross's tree was formed into a double-crossed cross and framed in a gold-plated sheet. According to tradition, the first church (rotunda) was there in 966. Dąbrówka, wife of Mieszko. He found himself in the place of the famous idolatry, the famous pagan temple, where for the triple world, the Glory, the Weather was blasphemed. Traces of pagan cult still acted on the hillside today. The Benedictine abbey was founded by Bolesław Chrobry in 1006. The relics were donated to the church in the 12th century. Emeric, the son of the Hungarian king Stephen. But not only the relic itself attracts tourists. The temporal, mummified remains of Prince Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, the famous Cossack killer of the 17th century, described by Henryk Sienkiewicz in "The Fire and the Sword", lie in this crypt. Resting in the crypt of Świętokrzyska near the church of the Holy Trinity may be the body of Prince Jeremi. According to the following facts: growth and posture are the same as living Prince, the body comes from the third decade of the seventeenth century, ie the period in which he lived and died Wiśniowiecki. There are arguments that do not confirm the identity of the Prince: the radiological method indicates the age of the deceased for 55 years (Jarema died at the age of 39), after the secondary autopsies no evidence of arsenic in the body and opening of the abdomen at the time of death of the hero. Research is ambiguous, and interpretation is arbitrary.
The Cathedral Hill in Frombork is one of the highest-class monuments. Repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt, retained the basic elements of medieval architectural design. The unique significance of this place is enhanced by the historical traditions and the figure of Nicolaus Copernicus. Is the cathedral or castle standing on a hill from the hills? Two in one, and more. The castle is called the fortified cathedral of fourteenth-century documents. The defense system was outnumbered by some knightly castle. The Medieval Diocese of Warmia, as a state in the Teutonic State, was supposed to defend it. On the one hand, the Teutonic Knights, dissatisfied with the pope's decision to grant a part of their territory to the spiritual and secular bishops, on the other - Prussian tribes conquered by Prussian monks. The brick church, surrounded by peripheral walls with a western gate tower, stood in 1388. In 1414 Polish-Lithuanian troops invaded Frombork. Works on the extension of the Cathedral Hill fortifications in the next decades did not prevent Frombork's destruction in 1455 by the Teutonic Order. Return to the idea of hill fortification, begun in 1537. With the fortifications and defending the cathedral the squadrons were dissolved in 1626 by the Swedish army. In addition to valuables Frombork lost valuable memorabilia after Nicolaus Copernicus, who left the cathedral canon here until his death in 1543. The treasures deported by the Swedes are still there today. In 1514, Copernicus purchased 175 silver fins for the north-west tower, within the inner walls of the fortress. Hence, he has conducted astronomical observations, here wrote his greatest work - "About the rotation of celestial spheres." Copernicus Tower, destroyed in 1945 and reconstructed 20 years later, now houses an exhibition entitled "The Cabinet of a scholar of the Renaissance". In 2005, researchers found astronomical debris in the atbork archipelago. The final identification was carried out three years later - based on the genetic research of the hair found in the Copernicus book of Stöffler, which, after the Swedish Flood, had been transported.
Malbork castle. It was the largest brick fortress in Europe, symbolized by the power of one of the richest and best-organized medieval states, its capital and the residence of great masters. The Teutonic Order began construction of the castle in 1274, but only after the capital of the state from Venice to Malbork was transferred, in 1309 a great reconstruction began, which lasted nearly 40 years. The first siege of the castle took place after the Battle of Grunwald. After two months of unsuccessful siege of the fortress, the Polish army had to give way. Another attempt to capture the castle was taken in 1454, so when the thirteen-year war broke out. The siege lasted 6 months and again failed. The Polish army abandoned the acquisition of the castle. Finally, on 7 June 1457, the triumphal entry of Kazimierz Jagiellończyk to the Teutonic Order was made. The castle was not acquired, but redeemed for a huge sum of money from the mercenaries defending the fortress, who, unable to wait for payment from the Teutonic Knights, decided on this type of transaction. At the end of the thirteen-year war the castle became the seat of local offices, and the Palace of the Great Masters - the residence of the Polish kings. During the war with Sweden the castle passed from hand to hand. After 1772 he was occupied by Prussian troops. Under Frederick II's rule, it was devastated. He began to serve as a military warehouse and barracks. Such a state of affairs was interrupted by the occupation of Malbork by the Napoleonic army, which held there until 1813. At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century a complete restoration of the castle was made. At the end of WWII Malbork became a Nazi fortress. The warfare that lasted for several months led to the destruction of almost half of the castle. After the war, it was a branch of the Museum of the Polish Army. In 1961 Castle Museum was established there. In 1997, Malbork Castle was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
27.09.1605 Bitwa pod Kircholmem
stoczona pięć lat po rozpoczęciu polsko-szwedzkiego konfliktu o Inflanty bitwa pod Kircholmem (obecnie Salaspils na Łotwie) została uznana za jedno z największych zwycięstw Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów. Stosunkowo niewielkie siły hetmana polnego litewskiego Jana Karola Chodkiewicza, liczące mniej niż 4 tys. ludzi, pokonały doskonale wyposażoną i trzykrotnie liczniejszą armię szwedzką, dowodzoną osobiście przez króla Karola IX Wazę. Dzięki sprzyjającym okolicznościom (deszcz spowodował zamoknięcie szwedzkich zapasów prochu), szybkim działaniom oraz wykorzystaniu potencjału husarii jako siły przełamującej szyki wroga Chodkiewicz odniósł błyskotliwe zwycięstwo okupione niewielkimi stratami.
Straty po stronie polskiej wynosiły zaledwie około 100 zabitych i 200 rannych. Szwedzi stracili ponad połowę swej armii, w tym kilku dowódców, ich straty szacuje się na ok. 7-8 tys. ludzi, z czego większość zginęła w trakcie ucieczki, ścigana nie tylko przez siły Chodkiewicza, lecz także przez okolicznych chłopów. Spektakularna wygrana nie została jednak wykorzystana przez Polaków — poza odsunięciem groźby oblężenia Rygi przez Szwedów oraz dużymi łupami nie uzyskano nic, a konflikt trwał jeszcze sześć lat.
Kircholm to jedno z najwspanialszych zwycięstw, w którym decydującą rolę odegrała husaria. Hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz do końca umiejętnie wykorzystywał różnice w uzbrojeniu i taktyce obu wojsk. Po bitwie sawa polskiego oręża rozeszła się szerokim echem po Europie.
Bobolice is located in the very heart of the Jura, a small town nestled among limestone mountains. Its inextricence is inextricably linked to the existing castle. Bobolice Castle was built in the mid 14th century by King Casimir the Great. It was part of the defense system of the Jurassic fortress, which protected the western border of the kingdom from Silesia. Along with the castle, a settlement was built in Bobolice, which was inhabited by craftsmen, merchants, farmers. Under the castle was a forge, a brewery, an inn and other farm buildings. Over the centuries Bobolice and the castle have changed owners many times. The town at the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was a part of the royal property, and then passed into the hands of such families as: Szafrancy, Krezow, Myszkowscy, Męcińscy. Currently the castle belongs to the Lasecki family. The castle and its surroundings were severely damaged during several raids. The most dramatic was the "Swedish Flood", since the castle began to fall into ruin. The last great card in Bobol's history was written by King Jan III Sobieski, who camped under the walls of this castle, heading to Cracow to concentrate his troops in front of Vienna. Today, after many years of reconstruction, Castle Bobolice returned to the state of its greatest glory. Along with him, as ever the whole neighborhood is developing. In Bobolice there was a hotel and a restaurant, and the place became one of the most popular addresses on the tourist map of Poland.
Serdecznie zapraszamy na kolejne warsztaty z szermierki wojskowej, które odbędą się w salach SGGW na Ursynowie w piątek 22 września w godzinach 19:30-21:00. Przyjdź i przekonaj się sam jaką wciągającą sztuką walki jest szermierka!
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